美国硅谷的内部人士告诉 BBC
,社交媒体公司故意让用户沉迷于他们的产品以从中获取经济利益。

Investment

Parakilas还称:“这是一种商业模式,旨在吸引用户,让我们把更多生命浪费在这款应用上,然后把这种关注卖给广告商。”但是Facebook官方的说法却大相径庭:“我们是为了让用户更贴近自己的家人和朋友,还有他们关心的事情,在任何阶段这些东西都不应该成为让人上瘾的因素。”

The dominance of Google, Facebook and Amazon is bad for consumers and
competition

  deliberately 故意地

For example, suppose Barbra, a young woman in Pennsylvania, happens to
see a photo in her Facebook newsfeed taken by a family member from a
rural part of the state. It’s a lovely photo, and since she’s planning a
trip there with her brother Johnny, the trigger intrigues her.

你对手机上瘾吗?相信很多人对于这个问题都不屑一顾,毕竟现在手机已经和生活紧紧捆绑在一起,多玩几个小时怎么了?但是今天美国硅谷的圈内人告诉BBC:我们本不应该花这么多时间在手机上的,但这里的科技公司在他们的平台上设计了多种多样的机制,为的就是让用户们上瘾!

The less severe contest

  脸书和照片墙告诉
BBC他们的应用程序的设计理念是让人们聚在一起,而从未想开发让人上瘾的产品。

First-to-Mind Wins

为什么会出现这种情况呢?Raskin表示很多设计师、工程师和产品经理的被聘请来就是干这个的,因为公司为了获得下一轮融资、为了提高股价,就必须让用户在产品上花更多时间,虽然一开始他们并不是想让用户沉迷其中,但久而久之却造成了沉迷。

If this trend runs its course, consumers will suffer as the tech
industry becomes less vibrant. Less money will go into startups,
most good ideas will be bought up by the titans and, one way or another,
the profits will be captured by the giants.

  habit-forming (活动)易成瘾的

Superpower

研究表明,过度使用社交媒体,其实和抑郁、孤独还有其他很多心理问题存在联系,比如英国青少年每周都会花18个小时在社交媒体上,Pearlman呼吁,所有意识到社交媒体存在问题的青少年应该尽快避开它。

This article appeared in the Leaders section of the print edition under
the headline “Taming the titans”

  词汇表

Habit-forming technology creates associations with “internal triggers,”
which cue users without the need for marketing, messaging, or other
external stimuli.

对社交网络产生质疑的还有Facebook前员工Leah
Pearlman,她打造了“喜欢”功能,也就是我们常说的点赞。但之前她却因为这个功能深陷困扰:“我已经把自我价值建立在了被自己点赞的内容上,当我需要验证自己的想法,我会打开Facebook;当我感到孤单,我会打开Facebook……在我从公司离职之后,停用了一段时间Facebook,那时我才发现自己之前上瘾了。”

https://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21735021-dominance-google-facebook-and-amazon-bad-consumers-and-competition-how-tame

  Sandy Parakilas, who was a platform operations manager at Facebook
in 2011 and 2012, said there was definitely an awareness that Facebook
was habit-forming when he worked at the company.

I wrote Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products to help others
understand what is at the heart of habit-forming technology. The book
highlights common patterns I observed in my career in the video gaming
and online advertising industries. While my model is generic enough for
a broad explanation of habit formation, I’ll focus on applications in
consumer internet here.

2012年从Facebook离职的员工Sandy
Parakilas同意Raskin的说法:“社交媒体就像是老虎机,在Facebook的一年半中,我每天都感觉自己在戒烟。”

betway88 1

betway88 2图片源于:BBC英语

What separates Hooks from a plain vanilla feedback loop is their ability
to create wanting in the user. Feedback loops are all around us, but
predictable ones don’t create desire. The predictable response of your
fridge light turning on when you open the door doesn’t drive you to keep
opening it again and again. However, add some variability to the
mix — say, a different treat magically appears in your fridge every time
you open it — and voilà, intrigue is created. You’ll be opening that
door like a lab animal in a Skinner box.

在BBC最新一集《Panorama》节目中,他们对硅谷的员工进行了采访。前Mozilla和Jawbone的员工Aza
Raskin直言:“他们所做的事情就像把毒品撒到应用界面上一样,为的就是让你一次又一次地回来使用它。”

Second, trustbusters need to think afresh about how tech markets
work.
A central insight, one increasingly discussed among economists
and regulators, is that personal data are the currency in which
customers actually buy services. Through that prism, the tech titans
receive valuable information—on their users’ behaviour, friends and
purchasing habits—in return for their products. Just as America drew up
sophisticated rules about intellectual property in the 19th century, so
it needs a new set of laws to govern the ownership and exchange of data,
with the aim of giving solid rights to individuals.

  platforms 平台

Creating associations with internal triggers comes from building the
four components of a Hook — a trigger, action, variable reward, and
investment.

不过Facebook还是为上面这个目标做了一下辩解:“我们正在与第三方行为研究公司合作,将产品中会对用户造成伤害的元素剔除,这会让用户在长时间使用的同时,接触到的都是正确、安全的东西。”

America’s trustbusters have given tech giants the benefit of the
doubt. They look for consumer harm, which is hard to establish when
prices are falling and services are “free”. The firms themselves stress
that a giant-killing startup is just a click away and that they
could be toppled by a new technology, such as the blockchain. Before
Google and Facebook, Alta Vista and MySpace were the bee’s knees.
Who remembers them?

  lure 诱惑,吸引

原文链接:https://magenta.as/

对于“无限滚动”,Raskin坦言如果你没有给时间让你的大脑追上并拦下你的冲动,那么就会一直划动下去。“这一机制让用户在手机上花的时间远超必要,虽然我没有因此上瘾,但为此感到内疚”,Raskin遗憾地说,所以在他现在做的产品上,他加入了单色模式,就是为了减少App的吸引力。

NOT long ago, being the boss of a big Western tech firm was a dream job.
As the billions rolled in, so did the plaudits: Google,
Facebook, Amazon and others were making the world a better place. Today
these companies are accused of being BAADD—big, anti-competitive,
addictive and destructive to democracy. Regulators fine them,
politicians grill them and one-time backers warn of their power
to cause harm.

  阿扎·拉斯金发明了无限下拉滚动的功能,这个应用程序功能意味着你不需要点击进入下一个页面,你可以无限地下拉页面,但滚动的时间可能比必要的或健康的标准长得多。

From “Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products” by Nir Eyal

因为Facebook是不会放过你们的,该公司的联合创始人Sean
Parker在去年的一次演讲上就表示,他们计划让消耗掉用户更多时间,而利用的就是人类心理学上的漏洞。

What to do? In the past, societies have tackled monopolies either by
breaking them up, as with Standard Oil in 1911, or by regulating them as
a public utility, as with AT&T in 1913. Today both those approaches have
big drawbacks. The traditional tools of utilities regulation, such
as price controls and profit caps, are hard to apply, since most
products are free and would come at a high price in forgone
investment
and innovation. Likewise, a full-scale break-up would
cripple the platforms’ economies of scale, worsening the service
they offer consumers. And even then, in all likelihood one of the
Googlettes or Facebabies would eventually sweep all before it as
the inexorable logic of network effects reasserted itself.

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